Cross-cultural validity of the Nature Relatedness Scale (NR-6) and links with wellbeing


  • Zsuzsanna Kövi Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church
  • Hyejeong Kim Handong Global University
  • Shanmukh Kamble Karnatak University
  • Veronika Mészáros Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church
  • Danielle Lachance Trent University
  • Elizabeth Nisbet



Nature relatedness refers to individual differences in subjective connectedness with the natural environment. We aimed to cross-culturally validate the Nature Relatedness scale and examine links between nature relatedness and wellbeing. We also tested whether spirituality or self-transcendent emotions such as gratitude mediate the relationship between nature relatedness and wellbeing. University student participants (N = 798) from four countries (Hungary, India, South Korea, and Canada) completed the short-form Nature Relatedness scale (NR-6; Nisbet & Zelenski, 2013), the Inclusion of Nature in Self scale (Schultz, 2002a), and measures of hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. Cross-cultural differences were found in a number of nature relatedness principal components, as well as differences in links between nature relatedness, spirituality, and wellbeing. In all four countries, gratitude formed a significant indirect path from nature relatedness to mental health and quality of life. The findings suggest that spiritual aspects of human-nature relationships may contribute to wellbeing across cultures.


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