International Journal of Wellbeing <p>The <em>International Journal of Wellbeing</em> was launched on 31st January 2011 in order to promote interdisciplinary research on wellbeing. The editorial team is dedicated to open access for academic research. The content is free for everyone to access, and there are no submission or publication fees for authors.</p> International Journal of Wellbeing Charitable Trust en-US International Journal of Wellbeing 1179-8602 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="CC License Information" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. The license prevents others from using the work for profit without the express consent of the author(s). The license also prevents the creation of derivative works without the express consent of the author(s). Note that derivative works are very similar in nature to the original. Merely quoting (and appropriately referencing) a passage of a work is not making a derivative of it.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> When COVID-19 exacerbates inequities: The path forward for generating wellbeing <p>None.</p> Meg A. Warren Samit Bordoloi Copyright (c) 2020 Meg A. Warren; Samit D. Bordoloi 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3 The impact of epidemic infectious diseases on the wellbeing of migrant workers: A systematic review <p><em>Background</em>: The COVID-19 outbreak poses challenges to people across the world and puts marginalized populations in an even more precarious position. Migrant workers, with their marginal socio-legal status in host countries, are especially vulnerable during the pandemic. The wellbeing of migrant workers, specifically low-wage laborers, is greatly compromised. <em>Objectives</em>: This study aims to systematically review the existing literature on how epidemic infectious diseases affect the wellbeing of migrant workers and what are the interventions to improve their wellbeing. <em>Method</em>: Following the PRISMA guideline, studies on migrant workers’ wellbeing or interventions to improve wellbeing during five major epidemic infectious diseases (i.e., COVID-19, SARS, Ebola, H1N1, MERS) were searched. Eleven electronic databases were used: Cochrane Library, WHO Global Research COVID-19 database, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, ERIC, MEDLINE, Social Index, PubMed, ProQuest, Social Care Online and EPPI-Mapper. In total, 17 articles that met the criteria were included. An assessment guide was developed to examine the quality of the studies. <em>Results</em>: Overall, the studies consistently show that major epidemic outbreaks negatively affect the physical, financial, psychological and social wellbeing of migrant workers. Migrant workers face a wide range of challenges such as risks of contagion, job insecurity, psychological distress, and discrimination. Factors associated with migrant workers’ marginal socio-economic status were attributed to these challenges. Several interventions were discussed including increased access to vaccinations, health screening at the border, promotion of hygiene strategies, and financial assistance in medical fees. <em>Discussion: </em>The findings highlight the need for a greater public awareness and stronger response to migrant workers’ wellbeing during an epidemic outbreak. Implications to practice and research were discussed. This review calls for more open-access data to advance research on migrant workers, and evidence-based interventions with a long-term effect.</p> Fei Wang Chao Tian Weidi Qin Copyright (c) 2020 Fei Wang, Chao Tian, Weidi Qin 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3 Subjective wellbeing of Italian healthcare professionals during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: A quasi-experiment <p>Italy was one of the strongest hit countries from the SARS-CoV-2 and the healthcare system was put under exceptional stress during the outbreak. The lockdown imposed on the population put the economy on hold and opened the way for a crisis that would have an impact on the healthcare system and the economy of the country. This study compares levels of subjective wellbeing among healthcare professionals before the outbreak and during the most critical moment of the lockdown, when Italy was the first country in the world by number of infections. Subjective wellbeing was measured with emotional wellbeing, job satisfaction, global happiness and satisfaction with life. Each measure was compared before and during the outbreak as well as among different subgroups of respondents. A special attention was put on inequalities in professional level, gender and educational level as well as their effect on subjective wellbeing. The study finds that while emotional wellbeing had a slight decrease, other measures were untouched and job satisfaction even increased during the lockdown period. Present wellbeing differences based in inequalities in professional and educational level were lifted once professionals were fighting the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. This decrease in inequalities and increase in job satisfaction might be strongly related to a newfound trust in healthcare professionals, a high gratitude from the population and a feeling of accomplishment and meaning as described in the PERMA model. The findings of this study should help healthcare organizations to keep inequalities low as well as other organizations to apply those learnings in their structure.</p> Matteo Makowiecki Valentina Ungaretti Marta Arzilli Leonardo Urbani Matteo Cecchi Michela Maielli Sergio Ardis Copyright (c) 2020 Matteo Makowiecki, Valentina Ungaretti, Marta Arzilli, Leonardo Urbani, Matteo Cecchi, Michela Maielli, Sergio Ardis 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3 Stress and wellbeing in urban college students in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic: Can grit and gratitude help? <p>College is filled with opportunity, challenge and growth – as students expand their relationships and social capital, make formative life decisions, and overcome stress to achieve life goals. The current short-term longitudinal study started before campus closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic and ended at the completion of the semester at an urban university. It investigates the stress and subjective wellbeing of freshmen, impacts of the pandemic on their psychological, academic and financial wellbeing and their resilience to the pandemic during this period, and the role of socioeconomic status. It also examines whether grit and gratitude helped in these areas. First, we compared students (N = 86 freshmen) in terms of their parents’ education level; high vs. low groups were created (i.e., completed high school or less vs. started or completed college up to graduate school). The low group reported significantly more perceived stress and subjective wellbeing than the high group prior to the pandemic. Next, examination of the two groups in terms of pandemic impacts and pandemic resilience revealed that the low group reported significantly more financial and academic impacts than the high group, but not more resilience or life event stress. Finally, we examined grit and gratitude prior to the pandemic and found that grit predicted significantly greater pandemic resilience and marginally lower psychological impact and that gratitude predicted significantly less impact to academic functioning at the end of the semester. However, the low parent education group also increased in grateful emotion, whereas the high parent group decreased, suggesting that gratitude helped the low group more during the pandemic. Overall results suggest that grit and gratitude can be promoted to protect college students’ subjective wellbeing and better cope with adversity of the pandemic. The study closes with suggestions for intervention.</p> Giacomo Bono Kresimir Reil Jadwiga Hescox Copyright (c) 2020 Giacomo Bono, Kresimir Reil, Jadwiga Hescox 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3 Job security and the promotion of workers’ wellbeing in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A study with Canadian workers one to two weeks after the initiation of social distancing measures <p><em>Background</em>: Due to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis, workplaces have had to make significant alterations in the way they conduct business. This, in addition to the current financial instability, may put workers at risk of experiencing job insecurity and, in turn, lower wellbeing. Job insecurity is a key determinant of wellbeing, but little is known on how it is impacted by public health crises, and more specifically how it relates to workers’ positive and negative wellbeing in the midst of a pandemic. Research is lacking on resilience levers that workplace interventions should target to support wellbeing in times of insecurity. <em>Objective</em>: Framed from a multidisciplinary perspective (public health, positive and organizational psychology), the study explores (1) workers’ job (in)security during the COVID-19 pandemic one to two weeks after social distancing measures were implemented by Canadian governments, (2) how job (in)security relates to wellbeing during the pandemic, and (3) the potential positive effects of workplace-related resilience levers. <em>Method</em>: 1,073 Canadian workers working full-/part-time or who were temporarily laid off completed an online survey, including measures of wellbeing at work or in general, job security and potential resilience levers (workplace disaster preparedness, policy, social capital). <em>Results</em>: Multiple regression findings highlight that marginalized workers (e.g., women, migrants, people facing financial hardships) reported lower job security, and having temporarily lost one’s job was negatively associated with job security. Low job security was related to lower scores across measures of wellbeing. Distress was high in the sample. Workplace disaster preparedness, policy and social capital were associated with higher wellbeing. The effects of these resilience levers tended to be stronger at higher job security levels. <em>Discussion</em>: Recommendations include a systemic, collaborative approach that includes policies fostering job security as well as resilience-promoting interventions in the workplace to protect/increase the wellbeing of workers during COVID-19.</p> Tyler Pacheco Simon Coulombe Christine Khalil Sophie Meunier Marina Doucerain Émilie Auger Emily Cox Copyright (c) 2020 Tyler Pacheco, Simon Coulombe, Christine Khalil, Sophie Meunier, Marina Doucerain, Émilie Auger, Emily Cox 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3 COVID-19, gender inequality, and the responsibility of the state <p>Previous research has shown that women are disproportionately negatively affected by a variety of socio-economic hardships, many of which COVID-19 is making worse. In particular, because of gender roles, and because women’s jobs tend to be given lower priority than men’s (since they are more likely to be part-time, lower-income, and less secure), women assume the obligations of increased caregiving needs at a much higher rate. This unfairly renders women especially susceptible to short- and long-term economic insecurity and decreases in wellbeing. Single-parent households, the majority of which are headed by single mothers, face even greater risks. These vulnerabilities are further compounded along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, class, and geography. Drawing upon the philosophical literature on political responsibility and structural injustice (specifically, the work of Iris Marion Young), I argue that while the state may not have had either foresight into, or control over, the disproportionate effect the pandemic would have on women, it can nonetheless be held responsible for mitigating these effects. In order to do so, it must first recognize the ways in which women have been affected by the outbreak. Specifically, policies must take into account the unpaid labor of care that falls on women. Moreover, given that this labor is particularly vital during a global health pandemic, the state ought to immediately prioritize the value of this work by providing financial stimuli directly to families, requiring employers to provide both sick leave and parental leave for at least as long as schools and daycares are inoperational, and providing subsidized emergency childcare.</p> Nikki Fortier Copyright (c) 2020 Nikki Fortier 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 10 3