International Journal of Wellbeing 2020-06-02T02:55:30-07:00 Dan Weijers Open Journal Systems <p>The International Journal of Wellbeing was launched on 31st January 2011 in order to promote interdisciplinary research on wellbeing. The editorial team is dedicated to open access for academic research. The content is free for everyone to access, and there are no submission or publication fees for authors.</p> Towards a greater global understanding of wellbeing: A proposal for a more inclusive measure 2020-05-31T14:59:24-07:00 Louise Lambert Tim Lomas Margot P van de Weijer Holli Anne Passmore Mohsen Joshanloo Jim Harter Yoshiki Ishikawa Alden Lai Takuya Kitagawa Dominique Chen Takafumi Kawakami Hiroaki Miyata Ed Diener The science of wellbeing has come a long way from the early days of measuring wellbeing via a nation’s GDP, and wellbeing measures and concepts continue to proliferate to capture its various elements. Yet, much of this activity has reflected concepts from Western cultures, despite the emphasis placed on wellbeing in all corners of the globe. To meet the challenges and opportunities arising from cross-disciplinary research worldwide, the Well-Being for Planet Earth Foundation and the Gallup World Poll have joined forces to add more culturally relevant constructs and questions to existing Gallup modules. In this white paper, we review the discussion from the international well-being summit in Kyoto, Japan (August 2019), where nine such additions were proposed and highlight why a more global view of wellbeing is needed. Overall, the new items reflect a richer view of wellbeing than life satisfaction alone and include hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, social wellbeing, the role of culture, community, nature, and governance. These additions allow for the measurement of a broader conceptualization of wellbeing, more refined and nuanced cross-cultural comparisons, and facilitate a better examination of the causes of variation in global wellbeing. The new Gallup World Poll additions will be trialled in 2020, with additional inclusions from this summit to be made in 2021. 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Louise Lambert, Tim Lomas, Margot P van de Weijer, Holli Anne Passmore, Mohsen Joshanloo, Jim Harter, Yoshiki Ishikawa, Alden Lai, Ed Diener Theorizing the interpersonal aspect of ikigai (‘life worth living’) among Japanese university students: A mixed-methods approach 2020-05-31T14:59:35-07:00 Shintaro Kono Gordon Walker <p>Wellbeing literature has greatly benefited from cross-cultural and non-Western research. However, most studies have been guided by Western, English constructs such as “happiness.” Thus, a large amount of non-Western, non-English words related to wellbeing remain unstudied, leaving a crucial gap in our knowledge on wellbeing. To address this gap, we conducted a mixed-methods project to develop a theory of how Japanese university students experience <em>ikigai</em> (‘life worth living’), and particularly its interpersonal aspect. First, we deployed a qualitative approach, in which photo-elicitation interviews were conducted with 27 Japanese university students, with the data analyzed using grounded theory. Our results suggested that students’ ikigai was strongly influenced by <em>ibasho</em> (‘authentic relationship’). In such relationships, students felt that they could be true to who they were (i.e., be self-authentic), and that their close others sincerely cared about them without considering personal gains (i.e., they experienced genuine care). These perceptions were fostered and maintained by two types of interactions: experiencing together; and communicating experiences. The former involved directly engaging in personally valued experiences with close others, while the latter meant keeping close others updated about their important experiences and obtaining support from them to further pursue such experiences. These interactions were conditioned by echoed values (a state where people and close others understand and respect each other’s personal values), and trust (the belief that they do not violate each other’s privacy and do offer support when needed). This theory guided a second quantitative study which analyzed online survey data from 672 Japanese students by using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Our results suggested that our new measures for the constructs were valid and reliable, and that the hypothesized relationships among them are significant. Our findings are discussed in relation to both Japanese <em>ikigai</em> literature and Western wellbeing research.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shintaro Kono, Gordon Walker Savoring the moment: A link between affectivity and depression 2020-05-31T14:59:27-07:00 Ian J. Kahrilas Jennifer L. Smith Rebecca L. Silton Fred B. Bryant <p><em>Objective</em>: Positive affectivity (PA; disposition to experience positive moods) and negative affectivity (NA; disposition to experience negative moods) may be risk factors for depression. Low PA may impair positive emotion regulation (savoring), potentially exacerbating depression. Understanding the mechanisms in which temporal domains of savoring influence the relationship between affectivity and depression may help advance depression treatments.</p><p><em>Method</em>: 1,618 participants (1,243 females; 70.0% Caucasian, 19.1% Asian, 4.5% African American, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 0.7% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 4.9% Biracial) ages 17 - 40 (M = 18.99, SD = 1.33) completed questionnaires. An exploratory path analysis was run with PA and NA as exogenous variables, savoring domains as mediators, and depression the outcome.</p><p><em>Results</em>: PA and NA were associated with depression and all three savoring temporal domains. Momentary savoring distinctly mediated the relationship between both PA and NA and depression.</p><p><em>Limitations</em>: The data are self-report and cross-sectional, precluding causal inference. Post-hoc power analysis indicated that the present study was underpowered. The use of a college sample primarily comprised of Caucasian women limits generalizability.</p><p><em>Conclusions</em>: Affectivity was associated with the temporal domains of savoring and indirectly associated with depression via momentary savoring. All temporal domains of savoring may bolster PA and mitigate NA. Momentary savoring may reduce depression symptoms in individuals with low PA and high NA.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ian James Kahrilas, Jennifer Smith, Fred Bryant, Rebecca Silton Positive coaching psychology: A case study in the hybridization of positive psychology 2020-05-31T14:59:29-07:00 Tim Lomas <p>Positive psychology has fruitfully interacted with numerous other disciplines, creating new hybrid paradigms. One such instance involves coaching, which shares the field’s focus on enhancing wellbeing and performance across life domains. As a result, there is considerable interest in exploring its interaction with positive psychology, and developing frameworks for their integration. To shed further light on their relationship, this paper explores four perspectives on the intersections and differences between these emerging fields. These include perspectives where: (a) the fields are essentially coterminous; (b) positive psychology encompasses coaching; (c) coaching encompasses positive psychology; and (d) the fields overlap but are not coterminous (the author’s preferred perspective). More generally, the paper offers suggestions for how positive psychology can integrate with the various kinship fields in these processes of hybridisation.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tim Lomas An exploration of strength use and its relationship with life satisfaction, positive self-beliefs and paranoid ideation 2020-05-31T14:59:30-07:00 Kara McTiernan Fiona Gullon-Scott Robert Dudley <p>Paranoid ideation is often preceded by negative interactions impacting on peoples’ sense of self and wellbeing. The National Health Service in the United Kingdom is promoting wellbeing but there is a paucity of research. The authentic happiness theory and a strength intervention were drawn upon in a preliminary investigation of the relationships between strength-use, wellbeing and paranoia. In a cross-sectional study, students (N=531) completed measures of strength-use, wellbeing, self-beliefs and paranoia. Pearson’s correlations, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, moderation analysis and mediation analysis were used to analyse the data. Strength-use was positively associated with life satisfaction and positive self-beliefs. There was a negative correlation between life satisfaction and paranoia, and higher positive self-beliefs were associated with lower paranoia. Paranoid ideation significantly predicted lower life satisfaction after controlling other symptoms of psychosis. Strength-use moderated the relationship between paranoia and life satisfaction. As hypothesised life satisfaction and positive self-beliefs mediated the relationship between strength-use and paranoia. The findings support delivering strength-use interventions to harness clients’ wellbeing.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kara McTiernan How does time pressure influence emotional wellbeing? Investigating the roles of domain satisfaction and neuroticism among small-business owners 2020-06-02T02:55:30-07:00 Filip Fors Connolly Ingemar Johansson Sevä Tommy Gärling <p>Emotional wellbeing is related to the balance of positive and negative emotions associated with activities at work and in free time. We conjecture that time pressure is a factor reducing positive emotions and amplifying negative emotions, such that it has a negative relationship to emotional wellbeing. We found this to be the case in two studies based on survey data derived from samples of small-business owners in Sweden. In Study 1, the relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing is negative for small-business owners as well as for employed wage earners, although at work the former group experience both higher time pressure and higher emotional wellbeing than the latter. No differences in free time between the groups are observed. Study 2 provides support for the hypothesis that, both at work and in free time, domain satisfaction partially mediates the negative relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing. Supporting two additional hypotheses, the results indicate that neuroticism has a direct negative relationship with emotional wellbeing, and also an indirect relationship with emotional wellbeing mediated by time pressure, and furthermore moderates the negative relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Filip Fors, Ingemar Johansson Säve, Tommy Gärling Connection and disconnection as predictors of mental health and wellbeing 2020-05-31T14:59:33-07:00 Kristine Klussman Austin Lee Nichols Julia Langer Nicola Curtin <p>Despite the established literature on connection to others, and burgeoning research on self-connection, researchers have paid little attention to the equivalent experiences of disconnection that people can experience in their everyday lives. The current research examined connection and disconnection from oneself and others. Specifically, across two studies, participants listed up to twenty words or phrases that they experienced related to each form of (dis)connection. Study 1 focused on how these affected participants’ mental health (i.e. anxiety and depression), while study 2 examined positive forms of wellbeing (i.e., flourishing and life satisfaction). Results suggested that increased mental health was most strongly related to a greater experience of connection to others. Flourishing also increased as one’s experience of other-connection increased. By contrast, poorer wellbeing was related to a greater experience of disconnection from others. Finally, life satisfaction decreased when participants experienced greater self-disconnection. In all, these findings provide an initial test of and support for the continued examination of various forms of both connection and disconnection.</p> 2020-05-31T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kristine Klussman, Austin Lee Nichols, Julia Langer, Nicola Curtin